The outcome of the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) depends heavily on timely and precise interventions in the early post-transplantation period, such as donor lymphocyte infusions and changes in the immunosuppresion administration. A decision about the necessity of these interventions can be made only if a very close monitoring of the engraftment is performed. Chimerism analysis is a powerful tool for achieving this purpose and has become a routine procedure for HSCT patient follow-up, in some cases becoming even a substitute for the minimal residual disease detection. The talk will give basic concepts about the chimerism analysis procedure, discuss the relevance of the test results in the malignant and non-malignant disease scenarios and briefly review the current methodologies used in this field.

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